He advised “do not eat anything while you are in the castle, since you is going to be trapped there forever if you do so (White 22).” After getting in the castle, they did exactly as Robin had instructed them

It discusses a variety of literary techniques that can enhance or deter a full expression of the issue of non-violence vs. self-defence. Moreover, this essay analyzes literary techniques used to articulate the topic successfully.

Non-violence has always has a conflicting meaning with self-defense. During the battle for freedom, nations adopted various ways to demonstrate their dissatisfaction with the oppression that they experienced. Therefore, non-violent resistance, similarly to non-violent action, describes the practice of attaining goals through Satyagraha, political or economic noncooperation, civil disobedience or symbolic protests. the protest is to evade violence or violent related activities and indulgences.

“2 Mob Victims Ready to Die for Integration” is an essay that reveals the problem of black people fighting for his or her rights, equality and freedom. It is evident that Bob Duke is sympathetic to black people as his white characters support equality between all human beings. Use of the derogatory words like mob, Negro for African-American people proves their abuse as well as the negative attitude of the society towards them.

It is evident that using the derogatory vocabulary has an ironical meaning while the author mocks, sympathizes and feels pity for African-American people at the same time.  Such literary technique as irony emphasizes non-violence of the Black people. Without any doubt, these are white people who made monsters and slaves from them. Ironic tone of this story is like the way of self-defense.

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“Tear Gas and Hymns” is a journalistic essay by Murray Kempton. The similarity of this essay with the previous one is evident in total irony.how to restate a thesis The connection of the elevated vocabulary with derogatory words creates the feeling of hopefulness. Irony and black humor are the ways of self-defense for the African-American people.

Another literary technique used in the literature of the Black Freedom Struggle is religious motives. Black people often address God in their praying, and this is their way of preservation of non-violence. “We thank Thee, Lord, for the protection Thou hast given us”, writes Murray Kempton (581). This statement proves the strong values that are reflected in their literature. Use of the Old English vocabulary (Thee, Thou, hast) reveals their desire of self-defense and saving their identity. One can see the non-violent character of Black people through their unity. For example, the pronouns we and our are frequently used in literary works of the Black Freedom Struggle. It means that African Americans are friendly and united when it comes to their self-defense.

The main issues discussed in African-American literature are racial discrimination, abuse, poverty and isolation from the community. One can see that Bob Duke and Murray Kempton express the concepts of non-violence and self-defense as necessity for the African-American people. Even in the titles of these short stories, one can feel the desire to rebel. “Tear Gas and Hymns” is full of irony and mocking at the gap between the black as well as the white. “2 Mob Victims Ready to Die for Integration” demonstrates the determinacy of black people to self-defense.

Bob Duke and Murray Kempton communicate the topics of self-defense and non-violence through vocabulary. The brutal kicking, violence, stomping and killing are the most used words that prove abuse and humiliation of African Americans. The common feature of the literature of the Black Freedom Struggle is a spiritual meaning related to the Bible, praying and cultural values.

The slave narrative genre that is African-American in nature developed in the mid-19th century. Fugitive slaves who escaped to freedom mainly published the stories on their experiences in the Southern America. They intended to bring out the cruelty of slavery; in addition, they incited other slaves to fight for his or her rights.

There was controversy over the idea of slavery at the time, and as a result, the literature was highly expressive from both sides. The slave narratives are classified into three types, namely tales to inspire abolitionist struggle, tales of religious redemption and tales of progress. The anti-abolitionist tales are less popular because of the autobiographical motif they have. They are the 19th century writings that are the most literary. The most famous are Fredrick Douglass’ autobiography and Harriet Jacobs’s incidents in the slave girl life.

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Moreover, the African-American culture is rich in poetry. It includes spirituals, blues, gospel and music.  This oral poetry has also appeared in the African-American tradition with specific references to the Christian sermons. Various literary devices like deliberate repetition, alteration and cadence are used. African-American literature has a tradition of adopting all oral poetic forms.

The topics of self-defense and non-violence in poetry are expressed through the melodic tone of the poems and repetition of the several lines. For example, “Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me round, turn me round, turn me round” (Hampton, Fayer, and Flynn 95). Songs and oral poetry are ways of self-defense using non-violent means.

A common trope in the African-American literature was signification. Irony, hyperbole, metonymy, litotes, metaphor and synecdoche are the stylistic devices that help to articulate the themes of self-defense and non-violence. “Hallelujah, I’m a-travelin’, Hallelujah, ain’t it fine? Hallelujah, I’m a-travelin’, Down Freedom’s main line” (Hampton, Fayer, and Flynn 93). Repetition in this poem reinforces the desire of African-Americans for non-violent action. The use of poetry was a form that was able to pass the appropriate message to people of the world in oral or written forms.

Having analyzed the journalistic essays, it becomes evident that self-defense and non-violence are common themes the literature of the Black Freedom Struggle. The literary works use various expressions such as religious motives, ironic tone of the narration and combination of derogatory words with the literary ones. Various stylistic means like deliberate repetition, alteration and cadence are used to reflect feelings and emotions of black people in their desire to oppose humiliation and abuse; total irony in proves the topicality of the issues of self-defense and non-violence for them. The repetition and alliteration in the poetry proves the hope of African-Americans for happy life without violence and constant struggle for defense.

Without any doubt, the genre (novel, poem, short story) influences the way the issues are depicted. It affects the way one regards the problem (emotionally, sympathetically and reluctantly). For example, a short story can describe self-defense and non-violence more sharply using irony. As for the poem, it adds more playful and optimistic tone to the issue. One can say that all stories, poems, novels are united with the only desire to live in non-violence and self-defense for freedom and national identity. Literary techniques (stylistic means, genres) enhance the expression of the theme of self-defense and non-violence.paperwritings testimonials For example, in poetry, stylistic devices are used for stronger expression of emotions and feelings. In prose, the authors pay more attention to the events and facts. Literary techniques can deter from the expression of the problem if one treats symbols and metaphors wrongly. The African-American authors tried to depict events indirectly as the government forbade their literature otherwise.

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To sum up, non-violence and self-defense in the literature of the Black Freedom Struggle are expressed similarly in all styles. The differences between them concern the diversity of the stylistic devices and the sharpness of the issue. The essays “2 Mob Victims Ready to Die for Integration” by Bob Duke and “Tear Gas and Hymns” by Murray Kempton are successful at articulating self-defense and non-violence. The book Voices of Freedom by Henry Hampton, Steve Fayer and Sarah Flynn is less successful than the analyzed essays because it targets the position of a black man in the community. However, in general, the issue of non-violence vs. self-defense is the most burning problem in the literature of the Black Freedom Struggle.

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Accepting to follow the path to the forest, shows their obedience, when they chose to do what Merlyn asked them to. The two brothers are also kind. After getting to the forest, they find Robin Hood who is troubled by the fact that one of his companions is kidnapped by a witch in the forest “a band of fairies, the Oldest Ones of All led by witch Morgan Le Fay, have kidnapped one of my companion, Friar Tuck, as well as the Dog Boy, who is one of sir Ector servants” (White 17). The two resolve to help Robin and his accompanying men by ambushing the Castle Chariot owned by the witch and his followers. Helping Robin free his companion, the boys also participate in rescuing other captives who were held together with Friar Tuck as well as the Dog Boy. This action does not only explicitly demonstrate their great level of kindness, but also their boldness to have the guts to attack such a strong castle. That implied risking their lives in the pursuit to rescue Robin’s men.

One can also say that both Kay and Arthur are cooperative. Successful battles really are a product of great cooperation among the fighting crew. Their success in rescuing the captives indicates that there was an intense cooperation between Robin’s crew as well as the two boys. Most of their success could be attributed to their ability to be effective listeners. Just before they attacked the castle that contained the captives, Robin gave them instructions how they could behave while in the castle. He advised “do not eat anything while you are in the castle, since you is going to be trapped there forever if you do so (White 22).” After getting in the castle, they did exactly as Robin had instructed them.

Another instance once the two came out to be effective listeners is when Arthur was in the form of a badger. In that case, he keenly listened to the wise badger when it was narrating to him. Arthur is seen to be highly interested in the narration and he used some of the lessons that he learnt from the narration later in his life. On his part, Kay becomes a good listener when he chooses to listen to his father’s warnings. He chose to clear up the lies for being the one to have removed the sword from the stuck stone near the church in England. If he was not a good listener, he could have chosen to be stubborn and, therefore, hold to the lie that he was the one who removed the sword from the stone and not his brother. This paragraph has given instances whereby Kay and Arthur appear to share similar characteristics.

White’s Efforts to Reveal Kay and Wart Similarities and Differences

White demonstrates both similarities and differences in Kay and Arthur’s characters. Moreover, the similarity is brought to the surface when White makes them share the same characters in some instances throughout the novel. This paragraph, therefore, seeks to establish how White has generally made Kay appear different from Arthur. In the first place, White was successful to show the reader how both Kay and Arthur have different bloods. That was made evident when he revealed to the reader that the two brothers were from different fathers. Arthur’s life is marked by instances where he has to obtain some knowledge receiving education from different individuals. His father sir Ector tells him “you must begin your education (White 26).”  Like that, he is fortunate to get Merlyn as his tutor. Furthermore, he learns magic from him when he is transformed to different animals such as a perch, ant, owl, wild goose and a badger.

Another instance where Arthur is seen to receive some knowledge is when he is taught a life lesson by a wise badger. This is different when Kay is brought on board. Rather than receiving education, Kay is presented by White while the one who spends most of his life preparing to become a knight.  Kay is arrogant and aggressive. That is evident when he spends much of his time trying to train to fight with weapons which he is not capable of using. He even challenges lot of fighters in the region, but is terribly defeated in the wars. Though his ability to challenge many fighters may be viewed as a character of boldness, it is, however, not. It is motivated by the fact that he is determined to rise to power and that is why he keeps fighting each and every one who seems to challenge him. Thus, he is overconfident and greedy for power.

Moreover, Kay’s level of arrogance is depicted when he thinks that he will win the tournament by removing the sword that is stuck in the stone. Apart from being a bully, he is also too bossy. After realizing that he forgot his sword when in the tournament, he orders his brother Wart to go home and fetch the sword for him: “He orders the Wart to return to their inn and retrieve the sword (White 33).” White presents Kay to be bossy is trying to show how Kay’s laziness.

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Furthermore, Wart was his squire, but not his slave. White emphasizes Kay’s childishness at the end of the novel, when Kay arrives to London in an attempt to pull the sword from the stone. Generally, Kay seems to think that he will easily do so. This is when he reasons “anybody who does not go for a tournament like this is going to be proving that he has no noble blood in his veins (White 41).”  On his part, Arthur is wise and lovable. Because of his character sir Ector adopts him as his son and chooses to create him receive education. White has clearly brought to light his obedience when he goes back home to get his brother Kay a sword after he ordered him to do so. That is also a clear demonstration of humility on the part of Wart.

In addition, when White tells the reader that Arthur was convincing Merlyn to change his brother into an animal too, he is trying to show that Arthur is compassionate and at the same time quite caring. Rather than embracing the new title as a King he is seen breaking into tears and wishing that he should not have removed the sword from the stone. Here, White compares Arthur to his brother Kay by showing that he has no greed for power. Therefore, we see how White introduced the varying characters of the two brothers, Kay and Arthur, throughout the novel.

Kay’s Character as Foil to Wart

Kay’s characters has for a long time been a hindrance to Arthur’s success. He is indeed too jealous about Arthur’s progress. That is evidenced after his father sir Ector recommended a tutor to Arthur, and Kay was not happy about that decision: “Kay, the Wart’s older brother became jealous over the Wart’s fortune” (White 47).  This affects Arthur emotionally after learning that his brother was not happy about his father’s move. Out of compassion he asks his tutor, Merlyn, whether he can also transform his brother Kay to an animal. (White 51)  However, Merlyn turns down that request claiming that “I cannot do that because that is not what Merlyn was sent for (White 52).” The idea here’s to evaluate how Arthur being compassionate and caring about his brother slows down or deflects his focus towards achieving what he is destined for.

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Kay’s aggressiveness as well as boldness makes him look more of a leader than Arthur. Though he loses most of challenges in the fights, this ability is a clear indication that he is bold enough to be a leader. As a result of being so courageous, Kay is able to kill a weird creature called griffin in the forest “a creature with an eagle’s head and wings and a lion body” (White 62). On his part, Arthur has rarely demonstrated instances where he is that courageous. Therefore, analyzed both characters’ boldness, even Arthur himself feels that he is not bold enough to challenge his brother Kay. This might be the reason as to why Arthur has been fond of being too admissive to his brother.

Moreover, while Kay lied about being the one to have removed the sword from the stone, he intended to assume the kingship instead of his brother Arthur. Though he is able to give up his lies after a rebuke from his father, it is true that he could have risen to power which was not meant for him. His character of being too bossy, authoritative, and arrogant can also be regarded as an obstacle preventing Arthur from rising to power. As already evident, Arthur is too submissive, humble, and compassionate. By being arrogant he ensured that Arthur would never be a challenge to him.  In simple terms, Kay’s aggressiveness over his brother can be seen while the main reason for him to be a foil for Wart.

Conclusion

As it was covered in this paper, there is no doubt that both Kay and Wart were destined to become leaders. This is evident from the fact that after a long run Kay became a Knight while Wart rose to become King. They have a lot of characteristics in common that make them undertake the same course in their lives. However, there are great differences defining their characters. Kay is aggressive, arrogant, bold, and greedier for power than his brother Wart. Because of this Kay acts as a hindrance to Wart’s success. White depicted lot of similarities and differences between the two characters, as well as demonstrated some of the obstacles that Kay posed on the way towards the success of his brother, Wart.

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European History

Both Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies belonged to that part of the original thirteen colonies that were created in the first decades of the seventeenth century under the ruling of King Charles II. “Without exception the new colonies were proprietary, awarded by the king to men who had remained loyal or had brought about his restoration or, in one case, to whom he was indebted” (Tindall and Shi 78). That was the major common feature between the Middle and Southern colonies, which, to a large extent, stipulated the special direction of their development.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the changes for the ruling countries. The shift from the Netherlands to England had a huge impact on the Middle colonies, especially New York and Delaware. The transition of New Netherland under the jurisdiction of the British Empire was inevitable. The English fleet was far more powerful than all Dutch military forces and eventually they capitulated without a single gunshot. This event put the beginning to the merger of the Dutch and British cultural and economic traditions in this region.

It must also be mentioned that neither the Mid-Atlantic nor Southern colonies enjoyed much political and economic freedom. They had their particular authorities and ruling bodies, plus they executed certain power over the citizens of the colonies. Nevertheless, this power was limited. They were still under the jurisdiction for the British Empire that did not have any intention to let them go away.

However, the Southern colonies had rather a minimal level of the British influence at the stage of the early development, but in 1675 the King appointed the Lords of Trade to control all the commercial operations in these regions. The primary aim of Britain was to make the highest possible profits from these colonies. Georgia, one of the Southern colonies, was under a very strong European influence as it was established partially as a military buffer zone between British territories as well as the area controlled by the Spanish Empire. The tensions between these two European countries was at the core of Georgia’s political development for centuries.

As at this period America was completely controlled by Britain and some other European countries, whose influence was considerably smaller though, the ties between Europe and both the Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies were very powerful. Even if there was a certain degree of freedom in making some specific decisions, on a larger scale these colonies were treated exclusively as the places bringing extra profit to the European nobles as well as the wealthy.

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Patterns of Settlement

In the Middle colonies the Dutch usually formed joint-stock companies that aimed at establishing the maximum quantity of trading outposts. It affected the structure of the settlements. All activities of social and economic kind were dedicated to the landholdings that were usually about 100 acres. These landholdings were often operated by a single family who hired additional helpers or servants if they were necessary. These workers were, of course, somewhat inferior to the owners, but their living conditions were quite satisfactory. It often happened that they began renting some parts of the owners’ land and had their own farms.

The pattern of settlements in the Southern colonies was according to a different principle. The key term that is necessary to understand the pattern and structure of the first settlements in the Southern colonies is “plantation”. The scheme of the traditional plantation was taken from the West Indies colonies, like Bermuda or Jamaica. The owners of the first plantation on the territory for the Carolinas and Georgia initially intended even to grow exactly the same agricultural crops, for example, sugarcane or tobacco, but these ideas did not prove to be very successful. Rice and cotton quickly became one of the main products in the Southern colonies, so it was agricultural crops that defined the way the settlements were organized. The infrastructure of plantations was sometimes even better than the one in some regions where poor population lived.

It is necessary to highlight that the Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies had different basic patterns of settlement, but they were perfectly suitable for the functions the colonies performed. The economy and manufacturing in the region also had a great impact on the methods of settlement organization.

Economy and Manufacturing

Economic prosperity was at the heart of the development of any early colony on the territory of the modern USA. This was absolutely true for both the Middle and Southern colonies; however, there were still some minor differences between these two regions. The nature of economic processes taking place in the colonies was greatly dependent on the people who inhabited these regions.

The differences between the people who migrated to North and South Carolina reflect the economic development that was taking place in these two colonies for several centuries. North Carolina was the place that became a new homeland for many medium and small tobacco farmers that arrived predominantly from Virginia and Maryland. South Carolina was a mixture of two types of population. The north of the colony was inhabited by people from Virginia and Pennsylvania, whereas the south was the place for wealthy planters from Barbados, Bermuda, etc. This diversity proved to be an effective boost for the development of economy, trade and manufacturing. It is necessary to mention that “the Carolinas proved highly profitable to the empire and won the approval of merchants, bankers, and politicians in London” (Wright 45). Both the Carolinas and Georgia’s manufacturing was highly dependent on their hot and humid climate that allowed to take good crops throughout the year. It resulted in their fast development and focus on the trade with other colonies and foreign countries.

The same situation was in the Middle colonies where the Dutch came first and brought their unique and very successful style of trading. These colonies quickly turned into centers for various commercial enterprises and endeavors. The authorities exerted every effort to keep this image of a business paradise and tried to boost the development of the region’s economy in every possible way. In general, it would be right to say that there were far more industrial enterprises of different size in the Middle colonies than in the Southern ones. For example, only in Pennsylvania there were plenty of textile companies that produced various types of clothes and materials, including sails for trading vessels. This region was also famous for its high-quality pig iron.

In both geographic sections the focus on trade resulted in the development of the industries that were closely connected to all commercial processes. For instance, ship building, manufacturing of naval appliances, creating all other forms of transport vehicles were very popular at that period.

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Religious and Philosophical Background

In terms of religion, the Middle and Southern colonies had much in common. America’s religious life was not stable at that period of time while the population experienced a painful adaptation to new environment and constant shifts in conceptual priorities. There was no single unified religion in the contrasted regions and it resulted in a certain degree of religious freedom and tolerance. The Mid-Atlantic colonies had even greater religious diversity than the Southern colonies. There was evidence of practicing religious groups of Quakers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, etc. on the territory of the Mid-Atlantic lands. Quakers were particularly strong at that time. They believed in the notion of universal priesthood. It means that any true believer can preach if he or she is moved to speak by the divine forces. The highest degree of religious diversity could be observed in the state of New York ( New Amsterdam). Woodard claims, “Ethnic and ideological purity have never been a priority, government has been seen as an unwelcome intrusion, and political opinion has been moderate, even apathetic” (16). However, it is not possible to say that the Middle and Southern colonies were a paradise for expressing any radical religious ideas. The degree of tolerance differed from one settlement to another. Landsman mentions, “For if toleration and diversity were among the distinguishing characteristics of the Middle Colonies, the ways in which people mixed – the degrees of integration and inclusion, the extent of liberty and tolerance, as well as the general character of the groups themselves—were quite varied” (267). For example, there were certain tensions with the Quakers as they refused to pay taxes in order to support the English Protestant Church.

As it was in case of the Mid-Atlantic colonies, the Southern territories were also originally planned to be a place where any individual would be able to live happily and in harmony with God as well as the surrounding world. “The Trustees tried earnestly to create Georgia the combination of Eden and Utopia which they had envisioned” (Wright 59). Such naïve and idealistic theories were quite popular among the people who came to both Carolinas and Georgia; although it is worth remembering that the principal reasons for inhabiting this land were, by all means, economic and not religious. These colonies were seen by many as the Promised Land that would give everybody an opportunity to build a prosperous, balanced and peaceful society.

The ideological theories praised at both colonies favored religious tolerance and, in fact, the Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies were quite similar in their approaches to religion and general philosophic ideas on which the society was supposed to be built.

Social Sphere

The social systems of the Mid-Atlantic colonies and the Southern colonies were strikingly different. The social structure established at these territories was greatly dependant on the economic and religious spheres described above. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were considered one of the most democratic places at that period. There were many Dutch, German and Swiss immigrants in the Middle colonies that practiced rather democratic attitude to all social and gender groups. For example, women in these colonies enjoyed more equality with men than in any other geographic section. Women were allowed to have their particular property, make wills and most of them worked in the fields and workshops with men on the equal footing.

At first the Mid-Atlantic colonies had rather homogeneous social structure as a lot of the population consisted of small and medium farmers and craftsmen. It did not last long, but it created the atmosphere of equality that enrooted in the social system of this region for a very long time. Later some individuals became more powerful and wealthy than others as well as the greater social stratification emerged, but the gap between different social classes was not enormous. The transitions from one class to another were not rare.

The situation in the Southern colonies was absolutely different. As they were initially created by only one hundred English settlers and many wealthy slave owners from Bermuda, Barbados and some other Caribbean regions, the system of slavery was adopted there from the very beginning. They introduced “a system so cruel and despotic that it shocked even its seventeenth-century English contemporaries” (Woodard 19). The society was formed according to the West Indies model. The white population was a superior cast that ruled and governed the lives of all other ethnic groups. Democracy and human rights were a privilege of a selected few who enjoyed it by the right of birth and money. The position of slaves was not slightly different from the one that was accepted in ancient cultures. They were property of their owners and had no rights at all.

Therefore, the social structure of the Middle and Southern colonies was very different. At that time it was quite difficult to imagine that later on the population of these colonies would enjoy the same privileges and democratic rights as in the modern USA. However, it must also be mentioned that at the very beginning of the colonies’ functioning these social systems emerged largely not by the will of their inhabitants, but because of the circumstances and influences from outside.

Conclusions

In general, the Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies had more similarities than differences. This is, to a certain extent, a surprising conclusion as these geographic sections were created under different circumstances and performed different functions. However, these basic similarities could be explained by the fact that the early period of American history was quite a difficult process that made all the colonies focus on creating, first of all, as strong economic system as it was possible.